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Independent Living

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Background on the History of the Independent Living Movement

History of Independent Living
by Gina McDonald and Mike Oxford

This account of the history of independent living stems from a philosophy which states that people with disabilities should have the same civil rights, options, and control over choices in their own lives as do people without disabilities:

The history of independent living is closely tied to the civil rights struggles of the 1950s and 1960s among African Americans. Basic issues - disgraceful treatment based on bigotry and erroneous stereotypes in housing, education, transportation, and employment, and the strategies and tactics are very similar. This history and its driving philosophy also have much in common with other political and social movements of the country in the late 1960s and early 1970s. There were at least five movements that influenced the disability rights movement.

Social Movements:

The first social movement was deinstitutionalization, an attempt to move people, primarily those with developmental disabilities, out of institutions and back into their home communities. This movement was led by providers and parents of people with developmental disabilities and was based on the principle of "normalization" developed by Wolf Wolfensberger, a sociologist from Canada. His theory was that people with developmental disabilities should live in the most "normal" setting possible if they were to be expected to behave "normally." Other changes occurred in nursing homes where young people with many types of disabilities were warehoused for lack of "better" alternatives (Wolfensberger, 1972).

Civil Rights

The next movement to influence disability rights was the civil rights movement. Although people with disabilities were not included as a protected class under the Civil Rights Act, it was a reality that people could achieve rights, at least in law, as a class. Watching the courage of Rosa Parks as she defiantly rode in the front of a public bus, people with disabilities realized the immediate challenge of even getting on the bus.

Self-help Movement

The "self-help" movement, which really began in the 1950s with the founding of Alcoholics Anonymous, came into its own in the 1970s. Many self-help books were published and support groups flourished. Self-help and peer support are recognized as key points in independent living philosophy. According to this tenet, people with similar disabilities are believed to be more likely to assist and to understand each other than individuals who do not share experience with similar disability.

Demedicalization was a movement that began to look at more holistic approaches to health care. There was a move toward "demystification" of the medical community. Thus, another cornerstone of independent living philosophy became the shift away from the authoritarian medical model to a paradigm of individual empowerment and responsibility for defining and meeting one's own needs.

Consumerism, the last movement to be described here, was one in which consumers began to question product reliability and price. Ralph Nader was the most outspoken advocate for this movement, and his staff and followers came to be known as "Nader's Raider's." Perhaps most fundamental to independent living philosophy today is the idea of control by consumers of goods and services over the choices and options available to them.

The independent living paradigm, developed by Gerben DeJong in the late 1970s (DeJong, 1979), proposed a shift from the medical model to the independent living model. As with the movements described above, this theory located problems or "deficiencies" in the society, not the individual. People with disabilities no longer saw themselves as broken or sick, certainly not in need of repair. Issues such as social and attitudinal barriers were the real problems facing people with disabilities. The answers were to be found in changing and "fixing" society, not people with disabilities. Most important, decisions must be made by the individual, not by the medical or rehabilitation professional.

Using these principles, people began to view themselves as powerful and self-directed as opposed to passive victims, objects of charity, cripples, or not whole. Disability began to be seen as a natural, not uncommon, experience in life, not a tragedy.


Wade Blank began his lifelong struggle in civil rights activism with Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. in Selma, Alabama. It was during this period that he learned about the stark oppression, which occurred against people considered to be outside the "mainstream" of our "civilized" society. By 1971, Wade was working in a nursing facility, Heritage House, trying to improve the quality of life of some of the younger residents. These efforts, including taking some of the residents to a Grateful Dead concert, ultimately failed. Institutional services and living arrangements were at odds with the pursuit of personal liberties and life with dignity.

Atlantis Community

In 1974, Wade founded the Atlantis Community, a model for community-based, consumer-controlled, independent living. The Atlantis Community provided personal assistance services primarily under the control of the consumer within a community setting. The first consumers of the Atlantis Community were some of the young residents "freed" from Heritage House by Wade (after he had been fired). Initially, Wade provided personal assistance services to nine people by himself for no pay so that these individuals could integrate into society and live lives of liberty and dignity. In 1978, Wade and Atlantis realized that access to public transportation was a necessity if people with disabilities were to live independently in the community. This was the year that American Disabled for Accessible Public Transit (ADAPT) was founded.

Accessible Public Transit

On July 5-6, 1978, Wade and nineteen disabled activists held a public transit bus "hostage" on the corner of Broadway and Colfax in Denver, Colorado. ADAPT eventually mushroomed into the nation's first grassroots, disability rights, activist organization.

In the spring of 1990, the Secretary of Transportation, Sam Skinner, finally issued regulations mandating lifts on buses. These regulations implemented a law passed in 1970-the Urban Mass Transit Act-which required lifts on new buses. The transit industry had successfully blocked implementation of this part of the law for twenty years, until ADAPT changed their minds and the minds of the nation. In 1990, after passage of the Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA), ADAPT shifted its vision toward a national system of community-based personal assistance services and the end of the apartheid-type system of segregating people with disabilities by imprisoning them in institutions against their will. The acronym ADAPT became "American Disabled for Attendant Programs Today." The fight for a national policy of attendant services and the end of institutionalization continues to this day.

Ed Roberts - Father of the Independent Living Movement

Ed Roberts is considered to be the man who "popularized the revolution in disability policy." As one of the people who started the first center for independent living, he is also considered the "Father of the Independent Living Movement."

When Ed enrolled in the University of California at Berkeley in the 1960's, school officials didn't know where he could live. Roberts who had polio and used an iron lung, ended up living in a wing of the infirmary. He and several other students living there were dubbed "The Rolling Quads."

The Rolling Quads

When the group tried to negotiate with the California Vocational Rehabilitation Agency, any attempt at compromise failed. So the group took their complaints and went public in a press conference. Newspaper reporters vilified VR and glorified the Rolling Quads.

By sticking together, the Rolling Quads got the city's first curb cuts and gained political clout. Roberts became a teacher, federal government disability consultant, and co-creator of the first independent living center.

The first Center for Independent Living

It was funded as part of a student service program for racial and ethnic minorities. "We set up a program that had to do with self-help, with an attendant pool, with working with peers. Our job was not to control their lives but to help people take control over their own lives. [This was the first center for independent living, which was in Berkeley, California.]

Center staff learned the welfare system better than the staff at the welfare agency, and figured out the loopholes. They pushed VR for a van, got it, and asked for more. If refused, they went higher up and studied regulations. "As you begin to get more and more empowered, you see yourself as powerful, too. Not only did we join all the movements, we realized the only way to change things was politics. Always other people had spoken for us. We were speaking for ourselves."

After the university told the independent living center it had to stop serving non-students, the center moved to a room in a two-bedroom apartment. Everyone who worked there was on welfare. They made a decision to stay on welfare and kept their salaries at $300.00, the maximum amount that wouldn't endanger welfare benefits.

Ed Roberts went off welfare when he became the Director of Vocational Rehabilitation in California. The next year, he and others launched 20 more centers for independent living. (Contributions to the Ed Roberts information came from S. Maddox, Patrick William Connally, and Nicole Bondi)

Wade Blank died on February 15, 1993, while unsuccessfully attempting to rescue his son from drowning in the ocean. Ed Roberts died on March 14, 1995 from complications from a stroke. Wade and Ed Roberts live on in many hearts and in the continuing struggle for the rights of people with disabilities.

These lives of these two leaders in the disability rights movement, Ed Roberts and Wade Blank, provide poignant examples of the modern history, philosophy, and evolution of independent living in the United States. To complete this rough sketch of the history of independent living, a look must be taken at the various pieces of legislation concerning the rights of people with disabilities, with a particular emphasis on the original "bible" of civil rights for people with disabilities, the Rehabilitation Act of 1973.

Civil Rights Laws:

Before turning to the Rehabilitation Act, a chronological listing and brief description of important federal civil rights laws affecting people with disabilities is in order.

The modern history of civil rights for people with disabilities is three decades old. An essential piece of this decades-long process is the story of how the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 was finally passed and then implemented. It is the story of the first organized disability rights protest.

The Rehabilitation Act of 1973

In 1972, Congress passed a rehabilitation bill that independent living activists cheered. President Richard Nixon's veto prevented this bill from becoming law. During the era of political activity at the end of the Vietnam War, Nixon's veto was not taken lying down by disability activists who launched fierce protests across the country. In New York City, an early leader for disability, rights, Judy Heumann, staged a sit-in on Madison Avenue with eighty other activists.

Traffic was stopped. After a flood of angry letters and protests, in September 1973, Congress overrode Nixon's veto and the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 finally became law. Passage of this pivotal law was the beginning of the ongoing fight for implementation and revision of the law according to the vision of independent living advocates and disability rights activists. Key language in the Rehabilitation Act, found in Section 504 of Title V, states that:

Advocates realized that this new law would need regulations in order to be implemented and enforced. By 1977, Presidents Nixon and Ford had come and gone. Jimmy Carter had become president and had appointed Joseph Califano his Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW). Califano refused to issue regulations and was given an ultimatum and deadline of April 4, 1977. April 4 went by with no regulations and no word from Califano.

On April 5, demonstrations by people with disabilities took place in ten cities across the country. By the end of the day, demonstrations in nine cities were over. In one city, San Francisco, protesters refused to disband.

Demonstrators, more than 150 people with disabilities, had taken over the federal office building and refused to leave. They stayed until May 1. Califano had issued regulations by April 28, but the protesters stayed until they had reviewed the regulations and approved them.

The lesson is a simple one. As Martin Luther King said, "It is an historical fact that the privileged groups seldom give up their privileges voluntarily. Individuals may see the moral light and voluntarily give up their unjust posture, but, as we are reminded, groups tend to be more immoral than individuals . We know, through painful experience that freedom is never voluntarily given by the oppressor, it must be demanded by the oppressed."

Leaders in the Independent Living Movement:

The history of the independent living movement is not complete without mention of some other leaders who continue to make substantial contributions to the movement and to the rights and empowerment of people with disabilities.

Max Starkloff, Charlie Carr, and Marca Bristo founded the National Council on Independent Living (NCIL) in 1980. NCIL is one of the only national organizations that is consumer-controlled and promotes the rights and empowerment of people with disabilities .

Justin Dart played a prominent role in the fight for passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act, and is seen by many as the spiritual leader of the movement today. Lex Frieden is co-founder of ILRU Program. As director of the National Council on Disability, he directed preparation of the original ADA legislation and its introduction in Congress.

Liz Savage and Pat Wright are considered the "mothers of the ADA." They led the consumer fight for the passage of the ADA.

There are countless other people who have and continue to make substantial contributions to the independent living movement.

DeJong, Gerben. "Independent Living: From Social Movement to Analytic Paradigm," Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 60, October 1979.

Wolfensberger, Wolf The Principle of Normalization in Human Services. Toronto: National Institute on Mental Retardation, 1972.

Additional Resources:

American's with Disabilities Act (ADA)

There are five (5) titles within the Act.

Title I of the ADA prohibits discrimination and ensures equal opportunity for persons with disabilities in employment.

Title II prohibits discrimination that involves state and local government programs and services which includes all public mass transportation.

Title III prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability in "places of public accommodation" (businesses and non-profit agencies that serve the public) which includes restaurants, hotels, theaters, pharmacies, retail stores, health clubs, museums, libraries, parks, private schools and daycare center. The exemptions are private clubs and religious organizations. All new construction in public accommodations and commercial facilities must be accessible.

Title IV deals with accessibility of telecommunications for people who are deaf or have speech disorders to make available to TTY users access to the relay system to be able to communicate with non-TTY users. It also requires federally funded television programs to be close captioned.

Title V deals with various miscellaneous provisions including the people who are excluded such as transsexuals, drug addicts, gamblers and others.

Elizabeth (Liz) Savage

In 1992, Liz Savage was appointed as a special assistant attorney general for civil rights, specializing in ADA policy and enforcement. She is the first person with a disability to hold so high a position with the United States Department of Justice.

Savage worked in the Carter White House from 1977 to 1979 and as a deputy scheduler in the Mondale-Ferraro presidential campaign in 1984. In 1985 she joined the Epilepsy Foundation of America where she supervised its national grassroots advocacy and legislative efforts. In 1991, she became the national training director for the Disability Rights Education and Defense Fund (DREDF).

Savage coordinated a coalition of 75 disability, civil rights, religious and civic organizations working toward the passage of the ADA.

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